How do you detect drug trafficking?

Current cargo searching methods including the deployment of drug-sniffing dogs and external cargo scanners are designed to detect narcotics and explosives. Heartbeat monitors and carbon dioxide probes are also used to detect the presence of humans being smuggled illegally.

What are effects of drug trafficking?

The consequences of illicit drug use are widespread, causing permanent physical and emotional damage to users and negatively impacting their families, coworkers, and many others with whom they have contact. Drug use negatively impacts a user’s health, often leading to sickness and disease.

How bad is drug trafficking?

Drug trafficking is a very serious crime and is punished more harshly than drug possession. It is criminalized under both federal and state laws, and it is often prosecuted as a federal crime when a defendant moves drugs across state lines.

Do drug cartels still exist?

As of 2017, the Sinaloa Cartel is the most active drug cartel involved in smuggling illicit drugs into the United States and trafficking them throughout the country.

What is a federal drug charge?

Federal Drug Trafficking Charges The Federal government prohibits any person from manufacturing, distributing, dispensing, or possessing controlled substances. A person found in violation is subject to sentencing based on the quantity of the prohibited substance.

What happens if you get caught smuggling drugs into another country?

Penalties for Drug Smuggling Like all federal crimes, the penalties are severe: as long as 26 to 43 years in prison for those convicted. You could spend the rest of your life in a federal prison.

How much is a trafficking charge?

Penalties for trafficking or possession for the purposes of trafficking are serious. Depending on the drug type and amount, the sentence can range from 18 months or a $2,000 fine or both to life imprisonment.

What smuggling means?

Smuggling is the illegal transportation of objects, substances, information or people, such as out of a house or buildings, into a prison, or across an international border, in violation of applicable laws or other regulations.

What is drug distribution?

Drug distribution refers to the movement of a drug to and from the blood and various tissues of the body (for example, fat, muscle, and brain tissue) and the relative proportions of drug in the tissues.

What are the factors that affect drug distribution?

The distribution of a drug between tissues is dependent on vascular permeability, regional blood flow, cardiac output and perfusion rate of the tissue and the ability of the drug to bind tissue and plasma proteins and its lipid solubility. pH partition plays a major role as well.

Which drug has highest volume of distribution?

Some drugs (e.g. tolbutamide, phenytoin, gentamicin, warfarin) are known to have small volumes of distribution (0.1–1 L/kg) while others (e.g. meperidine, propranolol, digoxin) are known to have large volumes of distribution (1–10 L/kg).

How does pH affect drug distribution?

So, in this case pH = pKa. Hence, when pH is equal to pKa, the drug is ionized halfly. Ionization of drug effects not only the rate at which the drug permeate membrane but also steady state distribution of drug between the body compartments, if pH difference is present between them.

Are drugs acidic or basic?

In an acidic medium, basic drugs are more charged and acidic drugs are less charged. The converse is true in a basic medium. For example, Naproxen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is a weak acid (its pKa value is 5.0). The gastric juice has a pH of 2.0.

What is the value of pK?

In water, measurable pKa values range from about −2 for a strong acid to about 12 for a very weak acid (or strong base). A buffer solution of a desired pH can be prepared as a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base.