What are the Bradford Hill causal criteria?

What are the Bradford Hill causal criteria?

Sir Austin Bradford Hill proposed criteria to establish such an argument. These criteria include the strength of the association, consistency, specificity, temporal sequence, biological gradient, biologic rationale, coherence, experimental evidence, and analogous evidence.

What are the 4 criteria for causality?


  • Plausibility (reasonable pathway to link outcome to exposure)
  • Consistency (same results if repeat in different time, place person)
  • Temporality (exposure precedes outcome)
  • Strength (with or without a dose response relationship)
  • Specificity (causal factor relates only to the outcome in question – not often)

Which are the weakest Bradford Hill criteria?

Anything between 1 and 2 is weak, while >2 is moderate and >4 is considered strong. A relationship is repeatedly observed in all available studies. A factor influences specifically a particular outcome or population.

What did Bradford Hill do?

Sir Austin Bradford Hill (1897 – 1991) was an outstanding pioneer in medical statistics and epidemiology [1–4]. His summary of a lecture entitled “The environment and disease: Association or causation” [5] had an enormous impact on epidemiologists and medical researchers.

What is causal criteria?

According to Rothman, the only criterion that is truly a causal criterion is ‘temporality’, that is, that the cause preceded the effect. Note that it may be difficult, however, to ascertain the time sequence for cause and effect.

Which Bradford Hill criteria is most important?

The dose response relationship is one of the strongest guidelines, because a confounder is unlikely to cause the same disease gradient as a primary exposure. Support for the next Bradford Hill criterion, plausibility, generally comes from basic laboratory science.

What are the three causal criteria?

The first three criteria are generally considered as requirements for identifying a causal effect: (1) empirical association, (2) temporal priority of the indepen- dent variable, and (3) nonspuriousness. You must establish these three to claim a causal relationship.

What is criteria of causation?

What are the three criteria for establishing cause and effect relationships?

The three criteria for establishing cause and effect – association, time ordering (or temporal precedence), and non-spuriousness – are familiar to most researchers from courses in research methods or statistics.

How is a causal relationship proven?

A causal relation between two events exists if the occurrence of the first causes the other. The first event is called the cause and the second event is called the effect. On the other hand, if there is a causal relationship between two variables, they must be correlated.

What are the three criteria of cause and effect?

What was the purpose of the Bradford Hill criteria?

In 1965, the English statistician Sir Austin Bradford Hill proposed a set of nine criteria to provide epidemiologic evidence of a causal relationship between a presumed cause and an observed effect. (For example, he demonstrated the connection between cigarette smoking and lung cancer.)

What are the criteria for Austin Bradford Hill?

The Bradford Hill Criteria. Temporality | Strength | Gradient | Consistency | Plausibility | Specificity | Evidence | Analogy | Coherence | See also. In 1965 Austin Bradford Hill described the minimal conditions establishing cause and effect in medical diagnosis.

When to use Bradford Hill’s criteria for causation?

Sir Austin Bradford Hill proposed criteria 1 to guide establishing an argument of causation decades ago when reviewing evidence in support of a causative role for occupational and lifestyle factors in producing a number of disease states (such as various cancers).

How are Bradford Hill’s criteria used in neuropsychiatry?

To do so, we review Bradford Hill’s criteria in terms of their importance to establishing an argument of causation for brain dysfunction in producing changes in Behavior and in terms of challenges and opportunities relevant to neuropsychiatric research.