What are Drusens in the eye?
Drusen are small, yellowish deposits of cellular debris that accumulate under the retina — the light-sensitive layer of cells at the back of the eye that’s essential to vision. Drusen occur in most people over age 60 and are more common in women than men.
What are Drusens made up of?
Drusen are small yellow deposits of fatty proteins (lipids) that accumulate under the retina. The retina is a thin layer of tissue that lines the back of the inside of the eye, near the optic nerve. The optic nerve connects the eye to the brain. The retina contains light-sensing cells that are essential for vision.
Does drusen always mean macular degeneration?
Drusen are typically associated with age-related macular degeneration in people over the age of 60; however they can arise as hereditary degenerations in young people. Drusen are a risk factor for macular degeneration but having drusen does NOT mean you have macular degeneration.
What does macular drusen mean?
Drusen are the defining feature of macular degeneration. These small yellow or white spots on the retina can be detected by an ophthalmologist during a dilated eye exam or with retinal photography. People with more than a few small drusen are said to have early age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
Is drusen hereditary?
Conclusion: The primary pathology of optic disc drusen is likely to be an inherited dysplasia of the optic disc and its blood supply, which predisposes to the formation of optic disc drusen.
How is drusen formed?
Taken together, these findings suggest that drusen form because RPE cells extrude (force out) unwanted or damaged proteins and lipids, which can then accumulate in Bruch’s membrane.
What does drusen look like on Oct?
Drusen is the earliest AMD sign that is detected clinically in fundus examinations. On OCT, drusen appear as RPE deformation or thickening that may form irregularities and undulations (Figure 2).
Can drusen disappear?
Drusen have a dynamic nature as they can enlarge, newly form, or disappear over time [2-4]. There have been case reports on drusen disappearance after macular hole surgery [5-7]. Macular hole surgery has also been associated with the development CNV [8-10].
What is the renin content in the macula densa?
Renin granular content in juxtaglomerular cells under the macula densa is labeled green using quinacrine as described before.34(B) The main control mechanisms of renin release and elements of the macula densa sensing and signaling apparatus.
Why are the cells of the macula densa taller?
The release of renin is an essential component of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system ( RAAS ), which regulates blood pressure and volume . The cells of the macula densa are taller and have more prominent nuclei than surrounding cells of the distal straight tubule (cortical thick ascending limb).
Is there treatment for hard drusen of macular degeneration?
Hard drusen don’t require treatment. Your ophthalmologist may want to monitor them on a regular basis to make sure they don’t turn into soft drusen. There’s no treatment available for soft drusen, but if you have soft drusen, it’s possible you also have macular degeneration.
How does the macula densa cell sense Salt?
Macula densa cells can sense variations in tubular fluid composition, including salt content and metabolites such as succinate. Salt is sensed via the NKCC2 and NHE2, whereas tubular succinate triggers the metabolic receptor GPR91 at the luminal plasma membrane.