What is E2F transcription factor?
The E2 factor (E2F) family of transcription factors are downstream targets of the retinoblastoma protein. E2F factors have been known for several years to be important regulators of S-phase entry. Recent studies have improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action used by this transcriptional network.
What genes does E2F transcribe?
E2F targets genes that encode proteins involved in DNA replication (for example DNA polymerase, thymidine kinase, dihydrofolate reductase and cdc6), and chromosomal replication (replication origin-binding protein HsOrc1 and MCM5).
What are sequence specific transcription factors?
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence. Transcription factors are members of the proteome as well as regulome.
What are transcription factors in transcription?
Transcription factors are proteins involved in the process of converting, or transcribing, DNA into RNA. Transcription factors include a wide number of proteins, excluding RNA polymerase, that initiate and regulate the transcription of genes.
Is E2F a tumor suppressor?
E2F is the principal target of the tumor suppressor pRB and defects in the RB pathway are observed in almost all cancers. Upon oncogenic changes, E2F activates ARF , an upstream activator of p53 and TAp73 , resulting in the induction of apoptosis.
Is E2F an oncogene?
Consequently, E2F-1 has been proposed to be an oncogene. When its regulation is disrupted, E2F-1 overexpression can cause uncontrolled growth, leading to tumor development .
What is the specific sequence?
A recognition sequence is a specific sequence, usually very short (less than 10 bases). Depending on the degree of specificity of the protein, a DNA-binding protein can bind to more than one specific sequence. For PstI, which has a single sequence specificity, it is 5′-CTGCAG-3′.
How do transcription factors work?
Transcription factors are proteins possessing domains that bind to the DNA of promoter or enhancer regions of specific genes. They typically do so by acting on promoters or enhancers to activate or repress the transcription of specific genes.
How are transcription factors activated?
Transcription factor activation is complex and may involve multiple intracellular signal transduction pathways, including the kinases PKA, MAPKs, JAKs, and PKCs, stimulated by cell-surface receptors [8, 9]. Transcription factors may also be directly activated by ligands such as glucocorticoids and vitamins A and D .