What causes the sail sign?

What causes the sail sign?

Its name derives from the fact that it has the shape of a spinnaker (sail). It is caused by displacement of the fat pad around the elbow joint. Both anterior and posterior fat pad signs exist, and both can be found on the same X-ray. In children, a posterior fat pad sign suggests a condylar fracture of the humerus.

What is thymic sail sign?

The thymic sail sign represents a triangular-shaped inferior margin of the normal thymus seen on a neonatal frontal chest radiograph. It is more commonly seen on the right side, but can also be bilateral.

What does elbow effusion mean?

An elbow joint effusion in the setting of trauma is typically a sign of an occult fracture. In adults, the occult fracture is most commonly of the radial head while in children a non-displaced supracondylar fracture should be suspected.

What causes a sail sign in the thoracic cavity?

On a chest X-ray, the sail sign is a radiologic sign that suggests left lower lobe collapse. In children, however, a sail sign could be normal, reflecting the shadow of the thymus. The thymic sail sign or spinnaker-sail sign is due to elevation of the thymic lobes in the setting of pneumomediastinum.

Is thymic sail sign normal?

The thymic sail sign is a normal finding in infants and should not be confused with the “spinnaker-sail sign” where the thymic lobe shadow is laterally and superiorly displaced due to pneumomediastinum, as though an actual boat sail blown by strong wind [1].

How do you treat elbow effusion?

We recommend that an apparently isolated post-traumatic effusion in the elbow joint is treated with immediate active exercises followed by a clinical reexamination after one week supplemented with new radiographs if there is unsatisfactory clinical progress.

How do you treat fat pad syndrome?

The initial treatment for infrapatellar fat pad syndrome aims to reduce pain and inflammation, which you can try to do with rest (see self-help above) and medicines. Further treatments include taping your knee and physiotherapy to gradually get you back to your usual activities.