How is chromobacterium Violaceum transmitted?
The most common mode of transmission of C. violaceum is the exposure of wounds and traumatic lesions to soil and stagnant or slow-flowing water containing the organism [4, 6]. The patient could not recall any history of trauma or wound.
Where is Chromobacterium violaceum found?
Chromobacterium violaceum is an opportunistic pathogen found in soil or water and is geographically restricted to tropical and semitropical climates.
Is chromobacterium motile?
Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, oxidase positive, motile bacillus. It is ubiquitously present in the water and soil of tropical and subtropical regions.
What disease does chromobacterium Violaceum cause?
Chromobacterium violaceum is associated with a spectrum of disease from localized skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) to systemic or invasive infection including necrotizing fasciitis,13 visceral abscesses, osteomyelitis, and central nervous system disease.
Is chromobacterium Violaceum pathogenic?
Chromobacterium violaceum is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, opportunistic pathogenic bacterium that infects both humans and animals. The major symptoms in most of the cases with fatal results seem to be sepsis, multiple liver abscesses, and diffuse pustular dermatitis.
What is violacein used for?
Violacein has also been used as a colorant for a variety of natural and synthetic fabrics (Shirata et al., 2000) instead of other chemical colorants for textile dyeing (Kanelli et al., 2017).
Is C Violaceum motile?
Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, non-sporing coccobacillus. It is motile with the help of a single flagellum which is located at the pole of the coccobacillus.
Is Chromobacterium Gram positive or negative?
Chromobacterium violaceum is gram-negative, and saprophyte from soil and water is normally considered nonpathogenic to human, but is an opportunistic pathogen of extreme virulence for human and animals. The biosynthesis and biological activities of violacein and the diverse effects of this pigment have been studied.
Is chromobacterium Violaceum a lactose fermenter?
The organism was a facultatively anaerobic, motile, gram-negative rod. It was catalase and oxidase positive. Biochemically, indole, methyl red, and Voges-Proskauer test were negative. The organism fermented glucose (producing acid but no gas) and trehalose but did not ferment lactose or mannitol.
Is chromobacterium aerobic or anaerobic?
Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, non-sporing coccobacillus. It is motile with the help of a single flagellum which is located at the pole of the coccobacillus. Usually, there are one or two more lateral flagella as well.
What is Violacein used for?
What is the function of Prodigiosin?
Prodigiosin received renewed attention for its wide range of biological activities, including activities as antimalarial, antifungal, immunosuppressant, and antibiotic agents. It is perhaps best known for its capacity to trigger apoptosis of malignant cancer cells.
What do Chromobacterium violaceum colonies look like?
Colonies are optimally produced during incubation at 22°C while cultured in 5% sheep blood agar under anaerobic conditions. Other agars such as MacConkey agar, and chocolate agar can also be used to cultivate this organism. Colonies appear black or very dark purple and give a smell of ammonium cyanide. (7)
How does Chromobacterium violaceum produce cellular energy?
The main factor that plays in this part is a flexible and efficient energy-generating metabolism. In aerobic conditions, the organism cannot synthesize glucose to produce energy and thus, resort to process such as Embden-Meyerhoff pathway, tricarboxylic acid, and other respiratory chains to produce cellular energy.
Why does Chromobacterium violaceum produce acetic acid?
As for anaerobic conditions, the bacterium metabolizes glucose to produce organic acids such as acetic acid and formic acid. In other words, fermenting takes place due to low levels of oxygen. Also, soluble fats and peptides are metabolized for producing energy and by-products such as violacein.
How does violaceum protect microorganisms from oxidation?
(7) Violacein has been studied and proven to defend microorganism membranes from oxidation or peroxidation. (8) This bacterium can also produce acid (ferment) from glucose, trehalose, N-acetylglucosamine and gluconate, but not L-arabinose, D-galactose or D-maltose.