What is stem cell derived cardiomyocytes?
Among several cell types derived from human pluripotent stem cells, cardiomyocytes hold great promise for cardiac repair, and human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs) can improve cardiac function and attenuate myocardial remodeling after myocardial infarction [14,15,16,17].
What does stem cell derived mean?
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are stem cells derived from the undifferentiated inner mass cells of a human embryo. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, meaning they are able to grow (i.e. differentiate) into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm.
What is the basic definition of a stem cell?
Stem cells are the body’s raw materials — cells from which all other cells with specialized functions are generated. Under the right conditions in the body or a laboratory, stem cells divide to form more cells called daughter cells.
What is iPSC cardiomyocytes?
iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes cultures include spontaneously beating cells and while immature in culture the cells co-express a mixture of atrial, ventricular and nodal markers – a diffferent expression profile to adult cardiomyocytes.
What is a Myocardiocyte?
Also known as myocardiocytes, cardiomyocytes are cells that make up the heart muscle/cardiac muscle. As the chief cell type of the heart, cardiac cells are primarily involved in the contractile function of the heart that enables the pumping of blood around the body.
What are the 2 major types of stem cells?
Stem cells are broadly classified as either adult or embryonic. Technically, even stem cells that come from fetal tissue or umbilical cord blood are classified as adult stem cells, and so most researchers prefer the term tissue stem cells for all stem cells other than those from embryos.
What are cardiomyocytes made of?
The individual cardiac muscle cell (cardiomyocyte) is a tubular structure composed of chains of myofibrils, which are rod-like units within the cell. The myofibrils consist of repeating sections of sarcomeres, which are the fundamental contractile units of the muscle cells.
How do you differentiate iPSC into cardiomyocytes?
Patient-specific cardiomyocytes can easily be derived by reprograming adult somatic cells into iPSCs and then differentiating these into cardiomyocytes. ESCs and iPSCs have the potential to form a teratoma if injected directly into the heart,16 and thus must be differentiated into cardiomyocytes prior to implantation.
What makes cardiac muscle cells unique?
Unique to the cardiac muscle are a branching morphology and the presence of intercalated discs found between muscle fibers. The intercalated discs stain darkly and are oriented at right angles to the muscle fibers. They are often seen as zigzagging bands cutting across the muscle fibers.
Where are cardiomyocytes found in the heart?
Cardiomyocytes are the true cardiac muscle cells that build up the muscle walls (called myocardium) of both atria (the chambers in which blood enters the heart) and the ventricles (the chambers where blood is collected and pumped out of the heart). These cells can shorten and lengthen their myofibers to create the pumping force of the heart.
How are cardiomyocytes and pacemaker cells linked?
All cardiomyocytes and pacemaker cells are linked by cellular bridges. Intercalated discs, which form porous junctions, bring the membranes of adjacent cardiomyocytes very close together. These pores (gap junctions) permit ions, such as sodium, potassium, and calcium, to easily diffuse from cell to cell, establishing a cell-cell communication.
Why do cardiomyocytes have a high density of mitochondria?
Cardiomyocytes have a high density of mitochondria than other cells to meet their metabolic demands. These structural features contribute to the unique functional properties of the cardiac tissue: Cardiac muscle has a longer period of contraction and refraction, which is needed to maintain a viable heartbeat.