Does hydroxychloroquine cause retinopathy?

Does hydroxychloroquine cause retinopathy?

Importance Hydroxychloroquine sulfate is widely used for the long-term treatment of autoimmune conditions but can cause irreversible toxic retinopathy. Prior estimations of risk were low but were based largely on short-term users or severe retinal toxicity (bull’s eye maculopathy).

Can hydroxychloroquine cause blindness?

It’s generally safe at normal doses, but higher amounts can damage the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye, and result in partial or complete blindness.

Is eye damage from hydroxychloroquine reversible?

[6] HCQ retinopathy is not reversible and cellular damage may progress for a number of years even after the drug is stopped. Therefore, it is essential to continue following the patient appropriately.

Does hydroxychloroquine affect sleep?

Even anti-malarials, such as hydroxychloroquine, can cause sleep difficulties and strange dreams. Taking such medications earlier in the day can be helpful in mitigating these effects.

What is the major toxic effect of hydroxychloroquine?

Its main side effects are gastrointestinal upset (vomiting, diarrhea, stomach cramps), skin rash, headache, dizziness, and ocular toxicity. However, serious side effects including arrhythmia, bronchospasm, angioedema, and seizures can rarely occur.

What are the symptoms of retinal toxicity?

Retinal toxicity is most frequently characterized by symptoms of central visual loss including reading difficulties, reduced color vision, and central scotomata. Maculopathy ranging from a subtle disturbance of the retinal pigment epithelium to bull’s-eye maculopathy has been described.

Does hydroxychloroquine cause liver damage?

Hydroxychloroquine therapy has not been associated with liver function abnormalities and is an extremely rare cause of clinically apparent acute liver injury.

How do you know if hydroxychloroquine is affecting your eyes?

“If you feel like your central vision is getting blurred, if you lose the ability to see a digital clock, if you lose color vision—if reds look kind of washed out—or if you have trouble seeing at night: Those are early signs that you might be developing Plaquenil retinopathy,” says Katz.

What are vision side effects of hydroxychloroquine?

Patients usually complain of difficulty in reading, decreased vision, missing central vision, glare, blurred vision, light flashes, and metamorphopsia. They can also be asymptomatic. Most patients have a bull’s eye fundoscopic appearance.