What are sulfonylureas drugs?
Sulfonylurea: A class of oral hypoglycemic agents (medications that lower the level of blood glucose) taken by people with type 2 diabetes. The sulfonylureas increase the secretion of insulin by the pancreas. There are two generations of sulfonylureas.
Is metformin a sulfonylurea drug?
Glyburide belongs to a class of drugs called sulfonylureas, and metformin is in a class of drugs called biguanides.
How are sulfonylureas metabolized?
Sulfonylurea drugs are metabolized in the body using an enzyme called CYP2C9, which breaks up the drugs so that they can be filtered and eliminated from the body. The variations in the gene that encodes the CYP2C9 enzyme is associated with a reduced capacity to eliminate sulfonylurea from the body, leading to problems.
What are the contraindications of sulfonylureas?
Contraindications to the use of sulfonylureas include hypersensitivity to sulfonylureas and drugs that have similar structures (see earlier) and pregnancy. Caution should be exercised in cases of reduced renal or hepatic function. Patients with ketoacidosis should receive insulin, not an oral antihyperglycemic agent.
What are the types of sulfonylureas?
Some commonly prescribed sulfonylureas include:
- DiaBeta, Glynase, or Micronase (glyburide or glibenclamide)
- Amaryl (glimepiride)
- Diabinese (chlorpropamide)
- Glucotrol (glipizide)
- Tolinase (tolazamide)
Which is better sulfonylureas or metformin?
Sulfonylurea monotherapy is associated with higher risk for all-cause mortality, major hypoglycemic episodes, and cardiovascular events compared with metformin. Although the presence of CKD attenuated the mortality benefit, metformin may be a safer alternative to sulfonylureas in patients with CKD.
Do sulfonylureas affect the kidneys?
We recently reported that kidney function declined faster among initiators of sulfonylureas compared to metformin; however, sulfonylurea compared to metformin use was also associated with increases in body mass index (BMI) and systolic blood pressure (SBP).
Do sulfonylureas burn out pancreas?
since their action is pancreas dependent, we don’t see effect from these drugs if β-cells stop secreting insulin and the patients then have to inject insulin to control their blood sugar levels. In that case, when insulin release stops, it seems that sulfonylureas burnt the pancreas which may not be the fact.
Which is more potent sulfonylurea?
Glyburide is a second-generation sulfonylurea and is more potent and exhibits fewer drug interactions than first-generation agents.