How do carbonic anhydrase inhibitors work for glaucoma?

How do carbonic anhydrase inhibitors work for glaucoma?

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) reduce eye pressure by decreasing the production of intraocular fluid. These are available as eye drops and as pills. If you need to use more than one type of eyedrop, you may need to take each medicine in a certain order as prescribed by your doctor.

How do CAIs work in glaucoma?

CAIs work by suppressing aqueous humor production. Bicarbonate formation influences fluid transport by affecting Na+, possibly by regulating the pH for optimal active ion transport. Blockade of carbonic anhydrase by CAIs in local tissues reduces the formation of bicarbonate ions, thus reducing fluid transport and IOP.

Why do carbonic anhydrase inhibitors treat glaucoma?

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors reduce intraocular pressure by reducing the secretion of aqueous humour.

Why are beta blockers used in glaucoma?

Topical beta-blockers reduce the intraocular pressure (IOP) by blockade of sympathetic nerve endings in the ciliary epithelium causing a fall in aqueous humour production.

What is the function of carbonic anhydrase?

Carbonic anhydrase, enzyme found in red blood cells, gastric mucosa, pancreatic cells, and renal tubules that catalyzes the interconversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbonic acid (H2CO3). Carbonic anhydrase plays an important role in respiration by influencing CO2 transport in the blood.

What is the latest treatment for glaucoma?

DURYSTA™ Bimatoprost Implant The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved Allergan’s new drug application for DURYSTA™; the first intracameral, biodegradable sustained-release implant indicated to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT).

How are carbonic anhydrase inhibitors used in glaucoma treatment?

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are IOP-lowering sulfonamide derivatives which inhibit the activity of CA in the ciliary processes of the eye, thus reducing aqueous humor formation and consequently decreasing IOP. Robert L Stamper MD, Michael V Drake MD, in Becker-Shaffer’s Diagnosis and Therapy of the Glaucomas (Eighth Edition), 2009

What is the mechanism of action of carbonic anhydrase?

Their mechanism of action consists in inhibition of CA isozymes present in ciliary processes of the eye (such as CA II, IV and XII), with the consequent reduction of bicarbonate and aqueous humour secretion, and of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) characteristic of this disease.

Which is the best Cai for glaucoma in dogs?

Dozolamide (Trusopt®, MSD) is the topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used most frequently in managing glaucoma in dogs and cats. Other topical CAIs are brinzolamide (Azopt®, Alcon) and dorzolamide/timolol (Cosopt®, MSD).

What is the mechanism of action of CAIS?

Mechanism of Action. CAIs work by inhibition of luminal and cellular carbonic anhydrase, resulting in an alkaline diuresis with impaired reabsorption of Na+, Cl−, and HCO3− and decreased excretion of titratable acid and NH4+. There is substantial kaliuresis, although hypokalemia is uncommon.