How does optical lattice work?
A basic optical lattice is formed by the interference pattern of two counter-propagating laser beams. The trapping mechanism is via the Stark shift, where off-resonant light causes shifts to an atom’s internal structure. The effect of the Stark shift is to create a potential proportional to the intensity.
What is an optical lattice clock?
Optical Lattice Clocks Clocks using atoms trapped in an optical lattice, rather than the historical approach of using a “cloud” of unconfined neutral atoms, dramatically reduce the influence of atomic motion on the clock’s ticking.
What are cold atoms used for?
As a tool, cold atoms are arguably the most important component in the most accurate clocks, but the applications within precision measurements range further, including sensing and navigation. They are used in space applications, and provide realizations of fundamental quantum information and quantum technologies.
What are optical clocks?
An optical clock is a clock the output of which is derived from an optical frequency standard. All those frequencies are highly stable, but the optical frequencies are more useful in the sense that precise frequency comparisons can be done within much shorter measurement times for such high frequencies.
How does the Cold Atom Lab work?
Ultracold atom facilities like Cold Atom Lab cool atoms down to within a fraction of a degree above absolute zero, or the temperature at which they would theoretically stop moving entirely. From its perch on the station, Cold Atom Lab has provided its scientists thousands of hours of microgravity experiment time.
How cold are cold atoms?
In ‘Cold Atoms’ By using finely controlled lasers and magnetic fields, scientists of the Cold Atoms group are able to cool small ensembles of atoms down to the lowest temperatures in the universe – just a few billionths of a degree above absolute zero – and thus to access the realm of fully quantum mechanical motion.
What is optical trap stiffness?
The trap stiffness was measured from the slope of a linear fit to the resulting displacement-force distribution over a region equivalent to one standard deviation away from the center of the trap where a linear distribution was generally observed.
What is the use of optical tweezer?
Optical tweezers have been used to trap dielectric spheres, viruses, bacteria, living cells, organelles, small metal particles, and even strands of DNA.
What is Magneto-optical system?
A magneto-optical drive is a kind of optical disc drive capable of writing and rewriting data upon a magneto-optical disc. Both 130 mm (5.25 in) and 90 mm (3.5 in) form factors exist. Magneto-optical drives were common in some countries, such as Japan, but have fallen into disuse.
How is an optical lattice formed by a laser beam?
Lattice created by laser beam interference. An optical lattice is formed by the interference of counter-propagating laser beams, creating a spatially periodic polarization pattern. The resulting periodic potential may trap neutral atoms via the Stark shift. Atoms are cooled and congregate in the locations of potential minima.
What is the periodic structure of an optical lattice?
Optical lattices are periodic arrays of microtraps for cold atoms generated by standing wave laser fields. The periodic structure of the lattice gives rise to a series of Bloch bands for the atomic center-of-mass motion.
How are optical lattices used in everyday life?
Optical lattices can also serve as flexible laboratories for cutting-edge basic research. For example, atoms and molecules in optical lattices can be used in quantum simulations, to help researchers model complex quantum processes such as magnetism or to potentially create novel materials and systems.
How big is the spacing of an optical lattice?
Optical lattices arise from the interference of laser light beams, and thus the lattice spacing is of the order of half the optical wavelength ∼λ /2, i.e., of the order of a few hundred nanometers. This imposes fundamental limits on the energy scales of Hubbard models.