What causes liver apoptosis?

What causes liver apoptosis?

Apoptosis is a prominent feature of liver diseases. Causative factors such as alcohol, viruses, toxic bile acids, fatty acids, drugs, and immune response, can induce apoptotic cell death via membrane receptors and intracellular stress.

What is hepatic apoptosis?

Apoptosis is a classical pathological feature in liver diseases caused by various etiological factors such as drugs, viruses, alcohol, and cholestasis. Hepatic apoptosis and its deleterious effects exacerbate liver function as well as involvement in fibrosis/cirrhosis and carcinogenesis.

Do liver cells undergo apoptosis?

Liver cells, especially hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, are particularly susceptible to death receptor-mediated apoptosis, given the ubiquitous expression of the death receptors in the organ.

What is apoptosis and inflammation?

Apoptosis, in contrast to necrosis, is not harmful to the host and does not induce any inflammatory reaction. The principal event that leads to inflammatory disease is cell damage, induced by chemical/physical injury, anoxia or starvation.

How do you know liver problems?

If signs and symptoms of liver disease do occur, the may include:

  1. Skin and eyes that appear yellowish (jaundice)
  2. Abdominal pain and swelling.
  3. Swelling in the legs and ankles.
  4. Itchy skin.
  5. Dark urine color.
  6. Pale stool color.
  7. Chronic fatigue.
  8. Nausea or vomiting.

What causes death of liver cells?

Death of hepatocytes and other hepatic cell types is a characteristic feature of liver diseases as diverse as cholestasis, viral hepatitis, ischemia/reperfusion, liver preservation for transplantation and drug/toxicant-induced injury. Cell death typically follows one of two patterns: oncotic necrosis and apoptosis.

Does fatty liver cause necrosis?

Fatty liver disease involves the accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes, necrosis of hepatocytes, inflammation, and often fibrosis with progression to cirrhosis. The two-hit model summarizes the important early metabolic events leading to hepatocellular necrosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

Does inflammation destroy cells?

Inflammation can destroy hepatic parenchymal cells, increasing the risk of chronic liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or viral hepatitis. Chronic liver diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US [129].

Is apoptosis anti inflammatory?

Cells dying by apoptosis can trigger an anti-inflammatory gene response in other cells by releasing a compound called adenosine monophosphate.