How many strains of Borrelia are there?
Species of Borrelia that cause Lyme disease are collectively known as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, but it’s important to note that this group contains at least 18 known species of Lyme-causing bacteria.
How many types of spirochetes are there?
The Spirochaetaceae family includes four genera: Spirochaeta, Cristispira, Treponema, and Borrelia. Two of these genera—Spirochaeta and Cristispira—are considered free-living and commensal, respectively. The other three genera—Treponema, Borrelia, and Leptospira—contain pathogenic species.
How do you treat Borrelia spirochetes?
Results of the study of three morphological forms of Borrelia in vitro revealed that five antimicrobial drugs commonly used as monotherapy in LD cases (doxycycline, amoxicillin, tigecycline, metronidazole and tinidazole) showed different potential in eradicating spirochetes, round bodies and biofilm-like colonies  …
Can late stage Lyme be treated?
Symptoms of late Lyme disease may include joint pain (arthritis), skin changes, musculoskeletal or neurologic complications. Like the less severe forms of Lyme disease, late Lyme disease can be treated with antibiotics, although medical opinions differ about the appropriate length of an antibiotic treatment course.
What do Lyme spirochetes eat?
Ticks most frequently acquire spirochetes from infected rodents during their larval feeding [36, 44]. After molting to the nymphal stage, infected ticks feed on a broad range of animals, including rodents, which become a new reservoir perpetuating the cycle .
How long does it take to culture a Borrelia spirochete?
When they are cultured successfully, they require a very complicated culture medium and long incubation times – usually 12-48 hours or more, compared to 1-2 hours for other types of bacteria. (Some pathogenic Borrelia strains have taken months to culture.)
Is it possible to cultivate syphilis spirochete without a host?
Simply stated, the culturing of the syphilis spirochete is impossible in the absence of a living host. Why? We don’t know why! Other disease causing spirochetes, such as the genus Borrelia which causes Lyme disease and relapsing fever, have also proven difficult to culture.
Is there a spherical form of Borrelia burgdorferi?
Some researchers have claimed to have cultured a spherical form of Borrelia burgdorferi, known as an L-form. If it is B. burgdorferi, it can be confirmed by the use of the PCR-primer for B. burgdorferi. Just because the spirochetes now appear to be spherical instead of helical, the bacteria’s DNA is unchanged.
Why does Borrelia spirochete swim forward and backward?
This is an evolutionary advantage over nonmotile bacteria that allows Borrelia to seek out those areas in a host that are best suited to its needs. The spirochete can swim as easily forward as it can backward, and it now appears that there are receptors for host tissue in both tips of the spirochete.