Is IL-2 Th1 or Th2?

Is IL-2 Th1 or Th2?

Although IL-2 has been characterized as a Th1-like cytokine, increasing evidence indicates that IL-2 and its downstream signaling molecule, Stat5, also are vital for the induction of anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines during a primary response (2).

What produces IL-21?

IL-21 is a pleiotropic type I cytokine that is produced mainly by T cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells. This cytokine has diverse effects on a broad range of cell types including, but not limited to, CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, B cells, macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells (DCs) 1 ( Figure 1).

What cytokine promotes Th2?

While IL-7 is capable of inducing and/or promoting Th2 differentiation in vitro, its function in vivo has not been carefully studied. IL-2 is mainly a product of activated T cells and thus may serve as an important autocrine cytokine during Th2 differentiation.

Does Th1 produce IL-2?

Th1 cells produce IL-2, IFN-γ and tumour necrosis factor-beta (TNF-β), and promote both macrophage activation resulting in DTH, and production of complement-fixing and -opsonizing antibodies.

What cytokine inhibits Th2?

IL-27 suppresses Th2 cell development and Th2 cytokines production from polarized Th2 cells: a novel therapeutic way for Th2-mediated allergic inflammation. J Immunol. 2007 Oct 1;179(7):4415-23. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.

What does IL 6 do in inflammation?

IL-6 in inflammation, immunity, and disease. IL-6 is a cytokine featuring pleiotropic activity; it induces synthesis of acute phase proteins such as CRP, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, and hepcidin in hepatocytes, whereas it inhibits production of albumin.

What does increase in IL-4 mean for the immune system?

As for IL-4 (8.34), the ND states “Increased production of IL-4 can indicate allergies or some sort. With an increase over this period of time it may indicate something seasonal. IL-4 also has roles in maturation of T-cells and B-cells.”

Is the immune system a Th1 or Th2 system?

In fact, I suggest you read about balancing the Th1 (T cell) and Th2 (B cell) immune system on the site. Below I will explain what I’m going through in balancing my immune system (Th1 / Th2). As the article states, virtually all autoimmune diseases have a Th1 or Th2 dominance.

What can Th1 and Th2 be used for?

Finally, the Th1/Th2 paradigm can provide the basis for the development of new types of vaccines against infectious agents and of novel strategies for the therapy of allergic and autoimmune disorders. Publication types Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t

Which is more important Th1 or Th2 polarization?

Both environmental and genetic factors act in concert to determine the Th1 or Th2 polarization. Further, Th1-dominated responses are involved in the pathogenesis of organ-specific autoimmune disorders, Crohn’s disease, sarcoidosis, acute kidney allograft rejection, and some unexplained recurrent abortions.