What is the hypobranchial eminence?
The hypopharyngeal eminence or hypobranchial eminence is a midline swelling of the third and fourth pharyngeal arches, in the development of the tongue. It quickly grows to cover the copula formed earlier from the second pharyngeal arch, and will form the posterior one third of the tongue.
What part of the tongue is hypobranchial eminence?
In the midline of the second, third and fourth arches, a swelling called the hypobranchial eminence or copula appears. The mucosa of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue, being derived from the first branchial arch is innervated by the lingual branch of V, the nerve of the first arch.
What embryonic structure did the tongue evolve from?
The tongue begins to develop around the fourth week of intrauterine life. The first, second, third, and fourth pharyngeal arches contribute to the development of the various portions of the tongue. The development begins with the growth of a medial swelling from the first pharyngeal arch, known as tuberculum impar.
What is tuberculum impar?
Medical Definition of tuberculum impar : an embryonic swelling that is situated in the midline of the floor of the pharynx between the ventral ends of the two sides of the mandibular arch and of the second branchial arch and that probably contributes to the formation of the anterior part of the tongue.
What part of the tongue is the occipital somites?
Occipital Somites (Musculature) The intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue are derived from occipital somites, which are segments of mesoderm in the region of the upper neck. The somites migrate from the neck anteriorly to give rise to the muscles of the tongue.
What is 2nd pharyngeal arch?
Second arch The second pharyngeal arch or hyoid arch, is the second of fifth pharyngeal arches that develops in fetal life during the fourth week of development and assists in forming the side and front of the neck.
Which cranial nerves affect the tongue?
The hypoglossal nerve enables tongue movement. It controls the hyoglossus, intrinsic, genioglossus and styloglossus muscles.
What is the structure and function of the epiglottis?
Epiglottis 1 Structure. The epiglottis is leaf-like elastic cartilage. 2 Innervation and blood supply. The epiglottis and its taste buds are sensory innervated by the internal laryngeal branch of superior laryngeal nerve, which is a branch of the vagus nerve 3 Function. 4 Histology.
What are the most common complications of epiglottis?
Most of the patients recover within several days of prompt treatment. The most common complications of epiglottitis include cervical adenitis, empyema, epiglottic abscess, meningitis, pneumonia, respiratory failure, septic shock, and death.
Is the hyoepiglottic ligament the same as the respiratory system?
The hyoepiglottic ligament connects the lingual surface with the superior margin of the hyoid bone. The laryngeal surface, however, has the same epithelial covering as the respiratory system; the ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
Where are the taste buds located in the epiglottis?
The epiglottis has some taste buds that are innervated by the fibers of vagus nerve from the inferior ganglion. The epiglottis has a lingual and laryngeal surface, the former is consistent with the oropharynx posteriorly, and is covered in non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.