What is differential RNA processing?

What is differential RNA processing?

The essence of differentiation is the production of different sets of proteins in different types of cells. The second mode of differential RNA processing is the splicing of the mRNA precursors into messages for different proteins by using different combinations of potential exons.

How can RNA processing affect gene expression?

RNA transcription makes an efficient control point because many proteins can be made from a single mRNA molecule. Transcript processing provides an additional level of regulation for eukaryotes, and the presence of a nucleus makes this possible.

What is 3 prime end processing machinery?

The 3′-end processing machinery includes the highly conserved cleavage and polyadenylation factor (CPF in yeast, CPSF in metazoans) (table S1). The poly(A) tail is required for nuclear export, confers stability to the mRNA, and regulates translation.

What is on the 3 end of mRNA?

A poly (A) tail is added to the 3′ end of the pre-mRNA once elongation is complete. The poly (A) tail protects the mRNA from degradation, aids in the export of the mature mRNA to the cytoplasm, and is involved in binding proteins involved in initiating translation.

What does alternative RNA splicing do?

Alternative splicing is the process of selecting different combinations of splice sites within a messenger RNA precursor (pre-mRNA) to produce variably spliced mRNAs. These multiple mRNAs can encode proteins that vary in their sequence and activity, and yet arise from a single gene.

What is the role of RNA processing?

RNA serves a multitude of functions within cells. These functions are primarily involved in converting the genetic information contained in a cell’s DNA into the proteins that determine the cell’s structure and function.

Do all mRNA have poly A tail?

On mRNAs, the poly(A) tail protects the mRNA molecule from enzymatic degradation in the cytoplasm and aids in transcription termination, export of the mRNA from the nucleus, and translation. Almost all eukaryotic mRNAs are polyadenylated, with the exception of animal replication-dependent histone mRNAs.

How can human cells make 75 000?

In a eukaryotic cell? Given that there are about 20,000 human genes, how can human cells make 75,000 – 100,000 different proteins? Due to alternative splicing of exons, each gene can result in multiple different mRNA’s and can thus direct synthesis of multiple different proteins.

What is the result of alternative splicing of mRNA?

This alternative splicing event, called mutually exclusive exons, induces the exclusion of one exon from the mRNA, when the competitor exon is included. The consequences of an alternative splicing are the deletion or the insertion of a nucleic acid sequence that might modify the protein sequence encoded by the gene.