Table of Contents

## What is output controllability?

Output controllability is the related notion for the out- put of the system, the output controllability describes the ability of an external input to move the output from any initial condition to any final condition in a finite time interval.

## What is controllability matrix?

The test for controllability is that the matrix. has full row rank (i.e., ). That is, if the system is controllable, will have columns that are linearly independent; if columns of are linearly independent, each of the states is reachable by giving the system proper inputs through the variable .

## How do you determine controllability and observability?

They can be roughly defined as follows. Controllability: In order to be able to do whatever we want with the given dynamic system under control input, the system must be controllable. Observability: In order to see what is going on inside the system under obser- vation, the system must be observable.

## Is stable system controllable?

In brief, a linear system is stable if its state does remains bounded with time, is controllable if the input can be designed to take the system from any initial state to any final state, and is observable if its state can be recovered from its outputs.

## What is observability in control system?

Observability of a control system is the ability of the system to determine the internal states of the system by observing the output in a finite time interval when input is provided to the system. It is another crucial property of the control system as it shows the behavioural approach of the control system.

## What is controllability of a system?

Controllability is defined as the ability of a control system to reach a definite state from a fixed (initial) state in a finite time. It is considered as an important property of the control system as it defines the behaviour of the control system. The theory of controllability was proposed in 1960 by R. Kalman.

## Can a system be controllable and unstable?

A system is controllable if you can move all states variables to the equilibrium by using the available inputs. A standard car with 3 wheels is unstable but controllable, i.e. it is stabilizable because all unstable modis are controllable (you only need to change the balance).

## How a control system can be represented in state-space method?

In control engineering, a state-space representation is a mathematical model of a physical system as a set of input, output and state variables related by first-order differential equations or difference equations. The state of the system can be represented as a state vector within that space.

## What is the purpose of controllability and observability?

Controllability measures the ability of a particular actuator configuration to control all the states of the system; conversely, observability measures the ability of the particular sensor configuration to supply all the information necessary to estimate all the states of the system.